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Using Elemental Ratios to Predict the Density of Organic Material Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

December 29th, 2011

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Environmental Science & Technology
DOI: 10.1021/es202525q

US drilling rig count off slightly

December 29th, 2011

US oil and gas drilling rig activity this week slipped slightly by 1 rig to 2,007 total rigs working. The rig count for the week ended Dec. 29 was up by 313 from the comparable period a year ago, Baker Hughes Inc. reported.

New ‘3-D’ Transistors Promising Future Chips, Lighter Laptops

December 29th, 2011

Researchers from Purdue and Harvard universities have created a new type of transistor made from a material that could replace silicon and have a 3-D structure instead of conventional flat computer chips.

The approach could enable engineers to build faster, more compact and efficient integrated circuits and lighter laptops that generate less heat than current models. The transistors contain tiny nanowires made not of silicon, like conventional transistors, but from a material called indium-gallium-arsenide. Indium-gallium-arsenide is the same compound recently used in a high-performing solar cell.

Computers implementing these new 3-D transistors will be able to run faster— and should also weigh less and generate less heat than their present-day flat-transistor-using counterparts.

Transistors contain critical components called gates, which enable the devices to switch on and off and to direct the flow of electrical current. In today’s chips, the length of these gates is about 45 nanometers, or billionths of a meter. However, in 2012, the industry will introduce silicon-based 3-D transistors having a gate length of 22 nanometers.

Their new and improved shorter gates are made from dielectric-coated silicon nanowires, and it is estimated that such gates could be further shortened to about 14 nanometers within a few years. In order to go any shorter, however, a material is needed that can move electrons faster than silicon is able to.

Studies of the indium-gallium-arsenide gates suggest that they should be able to move electrons five times faster than silicon gates, allowing for gate lengths in the neighborhood of just 10 nanometers.

At any length below 14 nanometers, the silicon dioxide insulating layer currently used on transistor gates no longer works properly, allowing the electrical charge to leak out.

The production process for the 3-D indium-gallium-arsenide transistors could be easily implemented into existing manufacturing processes, the scientists report, so adoption of the technology on a wide scale ought to be feasible.

Next year, if you buy a computer, it will have the 22-nanometer gate length and 3-D silicon transistors.

 

 

Chesapeake Midstream Partners to buy Marcellus shale gathering lines

December 29th, 2011

Chesapeake Midstream Partners LP (CMP) agreed to acquire Appalachia Midstream Services LLC (AMS), a Chesapeake Energy Corp. subsidiary, for $865 million. The transaction provides CMP with a 47% stake in 200 miles of gathering pipelines in the Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania.

MARKET WATCH: Energy prices drop on concerns for European economy

December 29th, 2011

Crude oil prices declined across the board Dec. 28, giving back most or more than the gains from the previous session. In New York, the front-month crude contract dropped below $100/bbl as traders worried more about the troubled European economy and less about Iran’s threats to close the Strait of Hormuz.

Algal Uptake of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Effluent from Biological Nutrient Removal Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems

December 29th, 2011

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Environmental Science & Technology
DOI: 10.1021/es203085y

Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity Is Dependent on Dissolved Silver and Surface Coating in Caenorhabditis elegans

December 29th, 2011

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Environmental Science & Technology
DOI: 10.1021/es202417t

Turkey give Russian pipeline project serious boost

December 29th, 2011

A plan by Russia to build a new gas route to southern Europe gained momentum on Wednesday after Turkey agreed to host the Black Sea section of the pipeline in its territorial waters.

Turkish approval for South Stream was hailed by Vladimir Putin as “a big event in Europe’s energy sphere”.

South Stream will transport up to 63bn cubic metres a year of Russian gas to south and central Europe from 2015, reducing Russia’s overwhelming dependence on gas export routes across Ukraine. In November, the first Russian gas was pumped to Germany under the Baltic Sea through the new Nord Stream pipeline, which will carry 55bn cubic metres of gas by 2013.

Russia’s Gazprom has teamed up with Germany’s Wintershall, Eni of Italy and Électricité de France to build the 900km offshore section of South Stream to link southern Russia with Bulgaria.

For more power generation business news

Decay of Bacteroidales Genetic Markers in Relation to Traditional Fecal Indicators for Water Quality Modeling of Drinking Water Sources

December 28th, 2011

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Environmental Science & Technology
DOI: 10.1021/es2024498

Passive Samplers Provide a Better Prediction of PAH Bioaccumulation in Earthworms and Plant Roots than Exhaustive, Mild Solvent, and Cyclodextrin Extractions.

December 28th, 2011

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Environmental Science & Technology
DOI: 10.1021/es203499m
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